During the Holocaust, Roma were counted and killed. Recent calls for a census stoke fears of a return to violent racism.
On May 16, 1944, Nazi gunmen encircled a section of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp in Poland where some 6,000 Roma prisoners were held. They were preparing to send the inmates to the gas chambers.
But the prisoners had caught wind of their plans and armed themselves with pipes, sticks, stones and makeshift weapons cobbled together from scrap wood and sheet metal.
While many Roma were murdered that night, their resistance led to Nazi Germany delaying their executions for several months, according to survivors.
During the Holocaust, censuses were used to identify minority groups to send to camps where Jews, Roma and others were slaughtered.