Matéo Maximoff, the best-known Romani writer from France - the first IRU Congress speaker and chief interpreter since 1971

Maxim's literary work began in 1938 with the story of Les Ursitoris and ended shortly before his death in 1999. His nine novels and a collection of short stories made him the most productive Romani prose writer in France.

His works have been translated into 14 languages.

Born in Spain, but due to the civil war in that state from 1936 to 1939, Mateo Maximoff moved with his family to France, where he also made the greatest writer career.

He wrote in French mainly because the possibilities to publish in Romany were quite small.
Otherwise, for the Roma Studies magazine "Les Études Tsiganes", he published several short stories in Romany - Calderan dialect.

He also translated the New Testament into Romans, and the translation of the Old Testament prevented death,

His novel La septième fille (1958) was published in German, while the English translation was made in 1979.

Otherwise Matteo was also a close relative with the most famous jazz guitarist, Django Reichard

At the same time in 1971 was part of the first team of organizing the First Roma World Congress of IRU in London in 1971, a speaker of that Congress and a major interpreter was introduced.

In 1985, she was also awarded the title "Art and life art work from the French government headed by then-President Jacques Chirac.

16 May - Romane Resistance

What happened on 16 May 1944? In the extermination camp of Auschwitz II – Birkenau, section BIIe was called the "Gypsy Camp" (Zigeuner Lager).

Some of the Romani people transported into the hell of Auschwitz by the Nazis were not gassed immediately upon arrival, but were placed in the Zigeuner Lager. BIIe was a "mixed" camp, which meant children, men and women were imprisoned there together. 

The Romani prisoners were forced into slave labor, observed and subjected to medical tests, and tortured. Dr Josef Mengele of the SS, a sadistic psychopath known as the "Angel of Death", chose Romani individuals, most of them children, to subject to perverse experiments. 

During the night of 2 August and the early morning of 3 August 1944, all of the prisoners of the camp, without exception, were murdered in the gas chambers. Because of this known, official history, 2 August has been commemorated as Romani Holocaust Day.

The Nazis had actually wanted to close BIIe and murder its Romani prisoners in the gas chambers earlier than that, on 16 May 1944. At the time there were more than 6 000 Romani prisoners there. 

On 15 May, the underground resistance movement in the camp warned the Roma of what the Nazis were planning. On the morning of 16 May, the Romani prisoners did not show up for the usual morning roll call and ceased cooperating with the SS guards.

The Roma barricaded themselves into their shanties. They had broken into an equipment warehouse and armed themselves with hammers, pickaxes and shovels, taking apart the wooden sections of the bunks they slept on to make wooden stakes.

The children collected rocks. When the SS guards entered the camp in the late afternoon to take the Roma to the gas chambers, they began to fight for their lives. 
The Roma fought to the death. Children, men, and women all fought.  
Auschwitz had never experienced anything like it before and would not experience it again. There were losses on both sides. 

The SS were in shock because they had completely failed to anticipate this resistance. Concerned they might lose more men and that the uprising might spread to other parts of Auschwitz, they retreated from camp BIIe.

No Roma died in the gas chambers that day. The Nazis subsequently put the prisoners of BIIe on a starvation diet.

On 23 May 1944, the Nazis moved 1 500 of the strongest Romani prisoners to Auschwitz I, many of whom were then sent to Buchenwald concentration camp. On 25 May 1944, 82 Romani men were transported to the Flossenburg concentration camp and 144 young Romani women were sent to the Ravensbrück concentration camp.  

Less than 3 000 Romani prisoners remained in the family camp at BIIe, most of them children. On 2 August 1944, the Nazis gassed them all to death in gas chamber V, although the Roma fought back on that dark night as well.

Glory and honor to the memory of these Romani heroes!

The History of Spanish Gypsies—The Romani and Gitanos in Spain

The history of Spanish Gypsies is more complicated than one of traveling beggars—they were an essential part of the development of modern Spanish culture..

When Did the Gypsies Arrive in Spain?
As the tight-knit family groups wandered, they came to Spain. Like all the travelers before, some came across the Pyrenees and others across the Mediterranean.

The earliest known document relating to Gypsies in Europe dates from January 12, 1425. Alfonso V of Aragon issued a safe-conduct through his kingdom, which extended from the Pyrenees south to Valencia, encompassing northeastern Spain.

The safe-conduct was issued to “Sir John from Little Egypt,” though of course, he wasn’t from Egypt at all. The pass included his band, and it was good for three months. But they weren’t the last band to be welcomed into Spain.

For the next several decades, records show that various bands of Gitanos were welcomed into Spain and received safe-conduct. By the 1470s, new waves came from the Mediterranean. These groups called themselves Greeks and claimed they were fleeing from the Muslim Turks, seeking sanctuary in Christian Spain





"Herdelezi"  si popularno tradicionalno folk gili e Romenge taro Balkani.

I gili reslja o anav prekal o anglonilaeskoro festivalo so utsavalkerel pe o iraniba e anglonilaeske , a majbut kerena le o Roma taro Balkani , ki Turkia thaj aver thana an i lumia.

O Herdelezi si romano anav bašo bugarsko, makedonikano thaj srpsko barodive. Kerel pe taro 6 maj prekal o purano stili jali 23 aprilo prekal nevo formati jali paše 40 divesa palo anglonilaeskoro jekvaš o majbaro dive.

O diferentno vokabulari e anaveske Herdeljez, Erdelezi si variante taro khorano anav Hıdırellez,baro dive so notirinel o starto taro anglonilaj.

I pendžarutni versia e giljake sine thaj light motivo a kultno filmeske "Dom za Vešanje" taro Emir Kusturica kote so giljavelala i Vaska Jankovska.

I gili arakhel pe thaj an o albumi "Čiribiribela" e grupake Bjelo Dugme anavkerdi sar Đurđevdan . O Goran Bregovič o teksti hramosargja le an i srpsko hrvtasko čhib.

O teksti ki romani čhib si:

Sa me amala oro khelena
Oro khelena, dive kerena
Sa o Roma daje
Sa o Roma babo babo
Sa o Roma o daje
Sa o Roma babo babo
Ederlezi, Ederlezi
Sa o Roma daje
Sa o Roma babo, e bakren chinen
A me, chorro, dural beshava
Romano dive, amaro dive
Amaro dive, Ederlezi
E devado babo, amenge bakro
Sa o Roma babo, e bakren chinen
Sa o Roma babo babo
Sa o Roma o daje
Sa o Roma babo babo
Ederlezi, Ederlezi
Sa o Roma daje


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